Une double peau climatisante

En plus de leur utilité dans l’agriculture, les serres sont une alternative d’habitat écologique. Sur cette image on voit l’utilisation de serres à plusieurs échelles, que ce soit de l’école d’architecture de Nantes, de la maison construites entièrement en serre, ou de la simple véranda.Le milieu est fait d’échange et la serre est un système poreux qui permet cette communication entre l’espace intérieur et extérieur. Pour l’habitat elle sert souvent d’espace intermédiaire pour chauffer. Néanmoins la serre pose quelque problème notamment en hiver ou il faut la chauffer, mais aussi des problèmes d’intimités.

La serre permet de laisser passer plus de lumière et donc de l’illuminer. Elle permet aussi de chauffer sa maison grâce à des principes actifs, et donc de faire des économies en n’utilisant pas d’énergie fossiles. Le système actif est très simple, une boite vitrée accumule l’énergie par l’effet de serre, à l’intérieur de la boite est implanté un serpentin rempli d’eau ou d’air. Le fluide réchauffé peut circuler dans les tuyaux créant ainsi un circuit fermé, distribué dans toute la maison.

Dans la continuité du travail sur les serres, nous nous sommes posés la question de comment rafraichir un batiment en été en intégrant la condensation dans un système de refroidissement.

Dispositif de l’expérience:

Matériaux utilisés: Bouteilles standard 1,5L / thernomètres/eau/ tuyauExpérimentation: Mise en place de l’expérience le 19 mai à 9h30, sous le soleil. Les bouteilles sont reliées entre elle, pour laisser l’air passer. Deux sont remplies d’eau et une, est la bouteille témoin (sans eau). Relevé toutes les heures.

D’après les résultats de l’expérience, il y a bien surchauffe en cas de température élevée avec une différence d’environ 20° , entre l’extérieur et l’intérieur des bouteilles. L’eau permet de refroidir l’intérieur des bouteilles grace à la condensation, et il semble, y avoir une addition de ses pertes. La température des bouteilles avec eau est moins élevée que la température de la bouteille témoin. L’évaporation et la condensation sont donc des processus qui emmagasinent de la chaleur

L’installation proposée serait une superposition de tube contenant de l’eau. En hiver les tubes sont vidées et agissent comme une double peau normale, réchauffant ainsi le batiment. En été, les tubes sont remplies, et lors de surchauffe, l’eau s’évapore et limite ainsi le phénomène de surchauffe. Ce système économique en moyen et en cout, permet de profiter de tout les avantages d’une double peau que ce soit en hiver ou en été. En été, la température dans le bâtiment reste élevé, mais l’énergie mise en place pour le refroidir par le processus de climatisation est moindre, avec cette installation, qu’avec une double peau normale.


Prototype final composé de tubes qui s’encastrent entre eux.

Matériaux: goblets, thernomètres, cadre en bois, baguette diamètre 0,5

This entry was posted in Récupération d'eau / Water Harvesting. Bookmark the permalink. Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.

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